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Newton And JerseyFirst of all, the existence of black holes has long been hypothesized by scientists.Both Newton and Einstein had opportunities to discover black holes, but missed them.The law of gravitation, published in 1687 in the mathematical principles of natural philosophy, states that every object has an attraction to each other, the magnitude of which is directly proportional to the mass of each object and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.If m1 and m2 are used to represent the mass of two objects, and r is used to represent the distance between them, then the mutual attraction between objects is F= (Gm1m2) /r, and G is called the universal gravitational constant or simply the gravitational constant.After the law of gravitation was proposed, scientists came to the conclusion that, since there is a law of gravitation, if the initial velocity of an object shot vertically up the surface of a planet cannot escape the gravitational pull, the object will only rise a certain distance, after which the acceleration generated by the planet's gravity will eventually cause it to fall.But if the initial velocity can escape the gravitational pull, then the object will completely escape the gravitational pull of the planet and fly out of it.Scientists call it escape velocity.Extending this to the universe, it follows that all celestial bodies have what is known as escape velocity -- the minimum speed necessary to escape the object's gravity permanently.For example, for a spacecraft to leave earth, its initial velocity would have to be greater than earth's escape velocity, which is 11.2 kilometers per second.The escape velocity depends on the mass of the planet.If a planet has a large mass, its gravity is strong and its escape velocity is high.Whereas a lighter planet would have a lower escape velocity.The escape velocity also depends on how far the object is from the center of the planet.The closer the distance, the greater the escape velocity.Earth's escape velocity is 11.2 km/s, and the sun's escape velocity is 617.7 km/s.The escape velocity is also calculated according to Newton's law of universal gravitation.It gives a precise relationship between escape velocity and the mass of the star, and it was because scientists knew about escape velocity that they were able to build spacecraft that could fly away from earth.However, due to the limitation of his time, Newton's mathematical calculation method was not perfect, so he failed to further extend his gravitational equation to the destination of massive stars, thus missing the opportunity to discover the theory of black holes.Then, in 1783, the English astronomer John michell demonstrated that if a person shot a particle, such as a cannonball, vertically upwards, its rise would be slowed by gravity, and the particle would eventually stop rising and fall.However, if the initial upward velocity exceeds the threshold for escape velocity, gravity will not be strong enough to stop the particle and it will fly away.The speed of light is about 300,000 kilometers per second, and light can easily escape from the earth or the sun.But what if a star is so massive that its escape velocity reaches the speed of light?In 1783, John mischel, the proctor of Cambridge, published an article in the philosophical transactions of the royal society of London on the basis of this assumption.He pointed out that a star with enough mass and enough compactness would have such a strong gravitational field that even light could not escape -- any light emitted from the star's surface would be pulled back by the star's gravity before it reached a distance.Mischel suggested that there could be plenty of such stars, although they would be invisible because light from them would not reach us, which mischel called the "dark star theory."It wasn't until later that Einstein came up with the general theory of relativity, which gave Einstein's field equations, which were equations describing the space-time geometry of the gravitational field, the matter energy momentum tensor as the source of the gravitational field, but Einstein didn't use Einstein's field equations to demonstrate the existence of black holes.In 1916, German astronomer Carl ? schwarzschild Einstein gravitational field equation is obtained by computing a vacuum in the solution, the solution shows that if a little to concentrate a large amount of material in space, the surrounding will produce strange phenomena, which exists around the particle an interface - the "event horizon" once in the interface, even light can escape.The "incredible object" was named "black hole" by American physicist John Archibald wheeler.It can be said that although Newton and Einstein did not discover or prove the existence of black holes, their research results laid the foundation for the discovery of black holes.

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